Fake news stories proliferated on social media in the run-up to the 2016 Presidential Election, with users sharing and engaging with more fake news articles—created by individuals and organizations seeking to mislead the public for financial or political gain—than legitimate ones.
Social media platforms cultivate complex relationships with their users, who are both creators and consumers of content. Add integrated advertising (like sponsored posts) into the mix, and it can be daunting to figure out what's true.
What is the relationship between social media and fake news?
Fake news spreads through sharing links on social media by individuals. Always verify and evaluate articles before posting.
Fake news is spread through fake social media accounts powered by social bots.
What is a bot? How do bots influence social media?
A social bot is a computer algorithm that is programmed to produce content and interact with humans on social media, aiming to mimic and influence human behavior. Bots are deployed in helpful ways to automate a range of business functions, and deployed in harmful ways when when they increase the dissemination of false information.
How do I spot a bot on social media?
Look for the following 3 identifiers:
Frequency: How often does the account in question post? How much does it post? How regularly? Is there a pattern? Is the volume of content posted beyond human capability?
Content: Can this account properly interact when contacted directly? Is the content posted consistent? Does it make sense semantically?
Social network analysis: Does this account have a diverse set of network connections? What does the network look like visualized on a map? Does this account look like it is only following other bots? Does this account interact in conversation from the margins or from the center?
Adapted from: Samuel C. Woolley, "Resource for Understanding Political Bots." PoliticalBots.org: A Project on Algorithms, Computational Propaganda, and Digital Politics. Last accessed on June 9, 2017.
Eli Pariser, chief executive of Upworthy.com, provides a simplified explanation covering how algorithms are deployed by companies to limit content in social media feeds and internet search results.
Pariser, Eli. "Beware Online 'Filter Bubbles.'" TED, filmed March 2011, http://www.ted.com/talks/eli_pariser_beware_online_filter_bubbles.
What is a deepfake?
Deepfake programs use artificial intelligence to create videos, images, or audio that appear authentic, but are not real. As deepfake technology improves, it becomes increasingly difficult to identify fake content.
To learn about deepfakes, get started with MIT's "In Event of Moon Disaster".
Learn more with LinkedIn Learning's "Understanding the Impact of Deepfake Videos". (Log in using your Fordham email address or your LinkedIn profile.)
How do you know if the content you are looking at on Facebook or Twitter is advertising? Look for clues!
Facebook will mark content filtered to you through advertising algorithms with the word SPONSORED located above it.
Twitter marks its advertising content as "Promoted Tweets."
Is all sponsored or promoted content filtered to you through social media intentionally false or misleading?
It's a mixed bag. It's up to you to think critically and decide for yourself. Either way, being able to identify content as advertising rather than journalism is necessary to making an informed decision.
Professional fact-checkers read laterally, meaning they initiate a new search on a separate screen to research the content of an article or website. They look beyond what is stated on "About" pages and ignore the placement of articles in search results as evidence that the top results are the best results. Fact-checking is an active process that should engage multiple sources before arriving at a decision about the reliability of news information. Therefore, it is in your best interest to move beyond Facebook when evaluating information found there.
To look for books covering social media, try searching the catalog with one of these subject headings. Copy and paste them as they appear below into the subject search box:
Social media--Social aspects
Social media--Political aspects
Digital communications--Social aspects
Digital media--Social aspects
Digital media--Psychological aspects
Fake news--United States
Internet--Moral and ethical aspects
Online social networks
Privacy, Right of