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Metadata and Cataloging- Standards and Schemas
As you read in "What is metadata?" there are many different components to pulling the proper data out of your objects and the digital versions you create. The next step after learning exactly what metadata is and how it applied to your digital collection is to figure out how to document the data about your objects. Fortunately, this conversation has already happened and has led to a number of different standards and schemas that allow you to translate your data into both human and machine ready formats. While the general preference of the Fordham University Libraries Digital Collection is Dublin Core in order to make the metadata more accessible to other repositories, other standards and schemas have been outlined below. Keeping your metadata in a consistent form is essential for breaking down silos and allowing for aggregation into larger pools of resources such as the Digital Public Library of America (DPLA) and Europeana.
Metadata Standards and Schemas
Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI)
This schema is generally used to describe both digital resources and physical resources. It originated with 15 different fields (or metadata terms.) It is known for its interoperability and versatility when being used in conjunction with other metadata schemas.
Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard (METS)
METS is a metadata standard that is generally used in digital libraries. It encompasses descriptive, administrative and structural metadata. It is encoded using XML schema language. It is known for its ability to add structure to a digital object. However, it is not as interoperable as other schemas and can require mapping to other schemas.
Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS)
MODS was born out of the desire to merge MARC bibliographic standards with Dublin Core's simplistic metadata terms. It is XML-based.
Text Encoding Initiative (TEI)
TEI is a XML-based markup language. It is primarily used by the digital humanities field.
Visual Resources Association (VRA) Core
VRA Core is a standard to describe images. It has grown from a list of metadata fields focused on describing images of art and architecture to a standard with an XML schema.
Cataloging Standards and Schemas
Bibliographic Framework (BIBFRAME)
BIBFRAME is billed as the future for library's bibliographic description. Moving from a world of catalogs and physical resources towards the integrated digital world, libraries are working to keep up with the constant creation of related resources. It will clarify the types of manifestations, remove doubt on the exact resources being described, and highlight relationships between resources.
Cataloging Cultural Objects (CCO)
CCO is another standard developed by the Visual Resources Association. This standard was created for those within the cultural heritage environment. It generally covers artwork, artifacts, and architecture.
Machine Readable Cataloging (MARC/MARCXML)
MARC is way to record data that is needed to create a catalog record in a library setting in a way that allows computers to access it. This is the current method for integrated library systems used in most organizations. MARCXML refers to using these records in a format that is compatible with XML.