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Nonprofit and Non-Governmental (NGO) Organizations: Home

Library Resources Nonprofit Organizations and NGOs

Welcome to Fordham University Library's research guide to resources and related topical areas in nonprofit non-governmental organizations. 

The study of nonprofit and non-governmental entities is interdisciplinary in nature, touching on the areas of business, economics, urban studies and social work. Whether your interest is fundraising, writing or distributing grants, developing public policy, deploying social services, establishing a foundation (corporate or private) or running a nonprofit, there are many Library resources available to assist you in your enterprise.

This guide also identifies quality sources on the business side of starting and running a nonprofit institution, or NGO. The Library offers titles on the unique aspects of nonprofit management in the areas of financial management, board governance, marketing, program evaluation, and setting strategy, among others.

Some Library Titles on NGOs

The Fordham Center for Non Profit Leaders

The Center provides a continuing education program uniquely taught by faculty from both Fordham's Graduate School of Social Service and Business Administration. It offers each participant a mentor for one year who is a present or past non profit CEO. It also furnishes permanent support to participants through Center staff. 

An Intro to IRS 501(c) Designation

From Investopedia:

Definition of '501(c)'

A subsection under the United States Internal Revenue Code. The subsection relates to non-profit organizations and tax law and identifies which nonprofit organizations are exempt from paying federal income tax


Under subsection 501(c) there are 12 other sections that separate the different organizations according to operations. The most common include:

c(1) - Any corporation organized under an act of Congress that is exempt from federal income tax                        
c(2) - Corporations that hold title of property for exempt organizations
c(3) - Corporations, funds or foundations that operate for religious, charitable, scientific,
literary or educational purposes
c(4) - Nonprofit organizations that promote social welfare
c(5) - Labor, agricultural or horticultural associations
c(6) - Business leagues, chambers of commerce, etc. that are not organized for profit
c(7) - Recreational organizations


What's IRS Form 990?

IRS information returns (the Form 990 series) are one of the most important ways charities share information about their organizations. The revised Form 990 is much more than a financial document -- it’s the primary source of information about your governance, operations, and programs available to government regulators, the press, and the public. Learn more about it in the "Financial Management" section under the tab "Nonprofit Management" in this guide and in the link below.